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J Public Health (Oxf). 2019 Jun 24. pii: fdz046. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdz046. [Epub ahead of print]

Association between the living environment and the risk of arterial hypertension and other components of metabolic syndrome.

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Department of Population Studies, Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukilėlių av. 15, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Donelaicio St. 58, Kaunas, Lithuania.



Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by numerous metabolic risk factors. We investigated the associations between a long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and the residential distance to green spaces (GS) and major roads with the development of arterial hypertension (AH) and some components of MS. These associations were assessed among persons living in private and multi-story houses (MH).


We selected 1354 participants for the population study from MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease Program). The exposures to PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 levels were assessed by using the LUR models for Kaunas City.


In the participants who lived in MH, the residential distance to a major road closer than 200 m and the residential exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 levels above the median were associated with a higher risk of AH (the adjusted relative risks (RRs), respectively, were 1.41(1.10-1.81), 1.19(1.01-1.42) and 1.27(1.07-1.52)). In these participants, the residential exposure to a PM10 level above the median was associated with a higher risk of reduced high density lipoprotein (RHDL) (RR = 1.46(1.05-2.05)). A negative impact of the traffic air pollutants on the incidence of AH, RHDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels was observed only in the participants who lived in MH.


Arterial hypertension; blood pressure; metabolic syndrome; multi-story houses; private houses


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