Send to

Choose Destination
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019 Nov;60(11):1219-1229. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13082. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.



Prior studies examining the sleep of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have relied on mean values such as average sleep duration, which masks intraindividual variability (IIV). The objective was to investigate whether adolescents with ADHD have greater IIV of sleep/wake patterns than adolescents without ADHD using actigraphy and daily sleep diaries.


Adolescents (ages 13.17 ± 0.40 years; 45% female) with (n = 162) and without (n = 140) ADHD were recruited from middle schools at two sites. Participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries for an average of 2 weeks.


Multilevel models were conducted with sex, sleep medication use, ADHD medication use, number of days with data, and social jetlag controlled for in analyses. For actigraphy, adolescents with ADHD had greater variability for time in bed, sleep onset and offset, and wake after sleep onset than adolescents without ADHD. For sleep diary data, adolescents with ADHD had greater variability in bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep quality, and night wakings than adolescents without ADHD. Social jetlag was a significant predictor of variability in sleep measures based on both actigraph and daily diaries; however, ADHD status was not associated with social jetlag.


This is the first study to show that adolescents with ADHD have more variable sleep/wake patterns than their peers using both objective and subjective sleep measures. IIV of sleep/wake patterns may be important for clinicians to assess and monitor as part of treatment. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying increased IIV of sleep/wake patterns in adolescents with ADHD and potential consequences for daytime functioning.


Actigraphy; adolescence; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; day-to-day; interdaily; jet lag; night-to-night

[Available on 2020-11-01]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center