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Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 Jun 21;136:962-979. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.143. [Epub ahead of print]

Functions of intrinsic disorder in proteins involved in DNA demethylation during pre-implantation embryonic development.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address: liujun2013@nwsuaf.edu.cn.
3
Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address: zhy1956@263.net.

Abstract

DNA demethylation is involved in many biological processes during pre-implantation embryonic development in mammals. To date, the complicated mechanism of DNA demethylation is still not fully understood. Ten-eleven translocation family (TET3, TET1 and TET2), thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) are considered the major protein enzymes of DNA demethylation in pre-implantation embryos. TET3, TET1, TET2, TDG, and DNMT1 contain abundant levels of intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs), which contribute to increasing the functional diversity of proteins. Thus we tried to explore the complicated DNA demethylation in pre-implantation embryos from the intrinsic disorder perspective. These five biological macromolecules all have DNA demethylation-related functional domains. They can work together to fulfill DNA demethylation in pre-implantation embryos through complex protein-protein interaction networks. Intrinsic disorder analysis results showed these proteins were partial intrinsically disordered proteins. Many identifiable disorder-based DNA-binding sites, protein-binding sites and post-translational modification sites located in the intrinsically disordered regions, and DNA demethylation deficiency point mutations in the IDPRs could significantly change the local disorder propensity of these proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this work provides a new viewpoint for studying the mechanism of DNA methylation reprogramming during mammalian pre-implantation embryonic development.

KEYWORDS:

DNA demethylation; DNA demethylation-related proteins; Disorder-based functions; Intrinsic disorder; Pre-implantation embryos

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