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Trends Immunol. 2019 Aug;40(8):748-761. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2019.05.009. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Towards Immunotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumors.

Author information

1
Immunology Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.
2
Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
3
Immunology Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address: jenkins.m@wehi.edu.au.

Abstract

Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of childhood cancer-related death. Immunotherapy is a powerful new approach for treating some refractory cancers; applying this 'fourth pillar' of cancer treatment to pediatric brain tumors is an exciting but challenging prospect. This review offers new perspectives on moving towards successful immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors, focusing on pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG), a subgroup with universally poor outcomes. We cover chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, vaccine therapy, and checkpoint inhibition in this context, and focus on the need for intimately understanding the growing brain and its immune system. We highlight the challenges associated with the application of immunotherapy in pediatric neuro-oncology, as well as the tissue-specific challenges to be overcome, to achieve improved outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

CAR-T cells; DIPG; DMG; glioblastoma; glioma; immunotherapy; pediatric brain tumor; vaccine; virus

PMID:
31229353
DOI:
10.1016/j.it.2019.05.009
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