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Kidney Int. 2019 Sep;96(3):572-580. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2019.02.042. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Nephrotoxicity induced by intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: emerging evidence.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA. Electronic address: rmhanna@mednet.ucla.edu.
2
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.
3
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA; UCLA Brain Research Institute, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have emerged as powerful tools to treat malignant neoplasms and ocular diseases by virtue of their ability to inhibit angiogenesis. Recent data indicate that intravitreal injections of VEGF inhibitors can lead to significant systemic absorption as well as a measurable reduction of plasma VEGF activity. There is increasing evidence showing that vitreal absorption of these drugs is associated with cases of accelerated hypertension, worsening proteinuria, glomerular disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, and possible chronic renal function decline. In this review, the 3 most commonly used anti-VEGF agents-bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept-are discussed, highlighting their intravitreal absorption and associated effects on the kidney as a target organ system. We provide clinical suggestions for clinicians to both better manage patients receiving anti-VEGF agents intravitreally and detect any putative systemic renal effects of these agents. While acknowledging the risks of aberrant retinal angiogenesis, it is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for adverse renal risks with use of these agents.

KEYWORDS:

aflibercept; bevacizumab; diabetic nephropathy; podocyte; proteinuria; ranibizumab; thrombotic microangiopathy

PMID:
31229276
DOI:
10.1016/j.kint.2019.02.042

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