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J Neurol. 2019 Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09431-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Dissociation of caloric and head impulse tests: a marker of Meniere's disease.

Author information

1
Blacktown Neurology Clinic, Blacktown, NSW, 2148, Australia.
2
Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.
3
Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Level 8 East 1, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.
4
Blacktown Neurology Clinic, Blacktown, NSW, 2148, Australia. watson.bneuro@gmail.com.
5
Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Randwick, NSW, 2013, Australia. watson.bneuro@gmail.com.

Abstract

A retrospective analysis of the horizontal video head impulse test (vHIT) results and caloric testing results was undertaken on 644 patients who attended a neuro-otology outpatient facility. Presenting symptoms included spontaneous vertigo, positional vertigo, imbalance or chronic subjective dizziness. For 570 patients, the results of vHIT and caloric testing were concordant. Both tests were normal in 500 subjects with an average vHIT gain = 0.92 ± 0.09 (L); 0.98 ± 0.10 (R) and canal paresis (CP) = 7.88 ± 6.12; (range 0-28%). 54 had concordant asymmetries, average ipsilesional vHIT gain = 0.56 ± 0.15, average contralesional vHIT gain = 0.88 ± 0.12. CP = 68.02 ± 24.38 (range 31-100%). 16 subjects had bilateral vestibular hypofunction with average vHIT gains of 0.42 ± 0.20 (L); 0.41 ± 0.19 (R), peak slow phase velocity (SPV) on warm caloric testing = 2.68 ± 2.08, range 0-6°/s (L) and 3.75 ± 3.43 range, 0-10°/s (R). 36 patients showed a dissociation of results between the two tests. In these subjects, the vHIT gain was normal (0.93 ± 0.06 left and 0.98 ± 0.07 right) and the caloric test showed a CP > 30% (48 ± 13.8%). Their final diagnoses included clinically definite Meniere's disease (MD) (n = 27), vestibular schwannoma (VS) (n = 2) vestibular migraine (VM) (n = 1), vestibular neuritis (VN) (n = 5) and unknown (n = 1). No patient with abnormal HSCC gain on vHIT had a normal caloric result. The caloric test complements the vHIT in the assessment of vestibular disorders and is most useful in suspected endolymphatic hydrops. Asymmetric caloric function in the presence of normal horizontal head impulse tests is most commonly associated with Meniere's disease and may function as a diagnostic marker.

KEYWORDS:

Caloric testing; Dissociation; Meniere’s disease; Video head impulse test

PMID:
31222419
DOI:
10.1007/s00415-019-09431-9

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