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J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Jun 18;242:112033. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112033. [Epub ahead of print]

The antidiabetic properties of the hot water extract of kola nut (Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl.) in type 2 diabetic rats.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa; Nutrition and Toxicology Division, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Lagos, Nigeria.
2
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa.
3
Department of Human Anatomy, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
4
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Nigeria.
5
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa; Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
6
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa. Electronic address: islamd@ukzn.ac.za.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Cola nitida is amongst the evergreen plants native to West Africa used in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic effects of the hot water extract of C. nitida seeds in type 2 diabetic rats.

METHODS:

Type 2 diabetic rats were orally administered with low (150 mg/kg bw) and high (300 mg/kg bw) doses of the hot water extract for 6 wk and thereafter, blood glucose, insulin level, lipid profile, pancreatic β-cell function, perfusion and morphology, redox imbalance, glycolytic and cholinergic enzymes, as well as of caspase-3 and Nrf2 expressions were measured.

RESULTS:

Treatment with the extract led to significant depletion of blood glucose, serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, fructosamine, ALT, and uric acids, while elevating serum insulin and HDL-cholesterol levels. The infusion also significantly (p < 0.05) elevated GSH level, SOD, catalase, α-amylase, and ATPase activities, with concomitant depletion of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, and NO and MDA levels in the serum and pancreas. Significantly (p < 0.05) improved pancreatic β-cell function and morphology were observed in rats treated with C. nitida, with restored pancreatic capillary networks. C. nitida inhibited the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, fructose 1,6 biphosphatase, glucose 6 phosphatase, and acetylcholinesterase while downregulated the Nrf2 expression. NMR analysis of the extract revealed the presence of caffeine and theobromine. The molecular docking studies indicated that identified compounds displayed strong molecular interactions with caspase-3 and Nrf2.

CONCLUSION:

These results insinuate the antidiabetic activities of C. nitida hot water extract and may be attributed to the NMR-identified compounds.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-hyperglycemic; Cola nitida; Glycolytic enzymes; Nrf2 expression; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
31220600
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2019.112033

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