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Protoplasma. 2019 Nov;256(6):1573-1584. doi: 10.1007/s00709-019-01402-1. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Viviparity in the dermapteran Arixenia esau: respiration inside mother's body requires both maternal and larval contribution.

Author information

1
Department of Developmental Biology and Invertebrate Morphology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland. m.jaglarz@uj.edu.pl.
2
Department of Developmental Biology and Invertebrate Morphology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland.
3
Department of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland.
4
Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland.

Abstract

Earwigs (Dermaptera) use different strategies to increase their reproductive success. Most species lay eggs; however, viviparity of the matrotrophic type has been reported in two groups: Hemimeridae and Arixeniidae. In Arixeniidae, offspring develop in two separate places: inside an ovary (the intraovarian phase) and within a uterus (the intrauterine phase). Both morphological and physiological aspects of viviparity in Arixeniidae have begun to be unraveled only recently. Here, we characterize how the first instar larvae of Arixenia esau, developing inside the mother's reproductive system, manage respiration and gas exchange. Using modern light and electron microscopy techniques as well as immunological approach, we provide a detailed account of the maternal and larval tissue interactions during the intrauterine development. We demonstrate that respiration in the Arixenia first instar larvae relies on the extensive tracheal system of the mother as well as a respiratory pigment (hemocyanin) present within the body cavity of the larvae. Our results indicate that the larval fat body tissue is the likely place of the hemocyanin synthesis. Our study shows that characteristic cone-shaped lobes of the outgrowths located on the larval abdomen are a part of a placenta-like organ and mediate the gas exchange between the maternal and larval organisms. Based on the obtained results, we propose that Arixenia esau evolved a unique biphasic system supporting respiration of the first instar larvae during their development inside the mother's reproductive tract.

KEYWORDS:

Dermaptera; Fat body; Hemocyanin; Insects; Respiration; Tracheae

PMID:
31218520
PMCID:
PMC6820587
DOI:
10.1007/s00709-019-01402-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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