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Int J Med Sci. 2019 May 10;16(5):711-719. doi: 10.7150/ijms.29934. eCollection 2019.

The Pharmacological Potential of Oil Palm Phenolics (OPP) Individual Components.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Metabolics Unit, Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre (ABBC), Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.


The oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) from the family Arecaceae is a high oil-producing agricultural crop. A significant amount of vegetation liquor is discarded during the palm oil milling process amounting to 90 million tons per year around the world. This water-soluble extract is rich in phenolic compounds known as Oil Palm Phenolics (OPP). Several phenolic acids including the three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid (CFA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), protocatechuic acid (PCA) and hydroxytyrosol are among the primary active ingredients in the OPP. Previous investigations have reported several positive pharmacological potentials by OPP such as neuroprotective and atheroprotective effects, anti-tumor and reduction in Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease model. In the current review, the pharmacological potential for CFA, PHBA, PCA and hydroxytyrosol is carefully reviewed and evaluated.


Caffeoylshikimic acid; Hydroxytyrosol; Oil palm phenolics; Protocatechuic acid; Shikimic acid; p-hydroxybenzoic acid

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

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