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Chronobiol Int. 2019 Sep;36(9):1301-1309. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2019.1624372. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Morningness-eveningness and caffeine consumption: A largescale path-analysis study.

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a Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest , Hungary.
b International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham , United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


It is still not clear how chronotype influences caffeine consumption (CC) and caffeine use disorder (CUD). The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between chronotype, CC, CUD, and wellbeing. Participants of an online survey in Hungary (N = 2259) answered the CUD Questionnaire, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Morningness positively associated with tea consumption, and negatively with cola and energy drink consumption. Severe CUD was more common among evening-type participants. Two significant mediations were found in the path model: Morningness→Tea consumption→Wellbeing and Eveningness→Energy drink consumption→CUD. It is concluded that CUD like other substance use disorders is associated with eveningness. The results indicate that the carrier beverages of the chemical compound of caffeine should be examined separately. Energy drink use can be accompanied by more unfavorable consequences, especially for evening-types, while tea consumption, which was associated with morningness, had more favorable consequences, like higher wellbeing.


Caffeine; caffeine use disorder; chronotype; morningness; wellbeing

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