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Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Jul;25(7). doi: 10.3201/eid2507.181817.

Prescribing Patterns for Treatment of Mycobacterium avium Complex and M. xenopi Pulmonary Disease in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2013.


Surveys suggest that clinicians diverge from guidelines when treating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (PD). To determine prescribing patterns, we conducted a cohort study of adults >66 years of age in Ontario, Canada, with MAC or Mycobacterium xenopi PD during 2001-2013. Using linked laboratory and health administrative databases, we studied the first treatment episode (>60 continuous days of >1 of a macrolide, ethambutol, rifamycin, fluoroquinolone, linezolid, inhaled amikacin, or, for M. xenopi, isoniazid). Treatment was prescribed for 24% MAC and 15% of M. xenopi PD patients. Most commonly prescribed was the recommended combination of macrolide, ethambutol, and rifamycin, for 47% of MAC and 36% of M. xenopi PD patients. Among MAC PD patients, 20% received macrolide monotherapy and 33% received regimens associated with emergent macrolide resistance. Although the most commonly prescribed regimen was guidelines-recommended, many regimens prescribed for MAC PD were associated with emergent macrolide resistance.


Canada; Mycobacterium avium complex; Mycobacterium infections; Mycobacterium xenopi; Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Ontario; nontuberculous; respiratory infections; treatment; tuberculosis and other mycobacteria

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