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Int J Mycobacteriol. 2019 Apr-Jun;8(2):118-123. doi: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_50_19.

Determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in public health facilities of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia: Unmatched Case-control study.

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Public Health Emergency Management, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Department of Public Health, Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.



The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia Annual performance report in 2014-2015 showed that the highest prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) case in Ethiopia was reported from Dire Dawa city which was 400/100,000 population. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of pulmonary TB (PTB) in public health facilities of Dire Dawa city, Eastern Ethiopia.


A case-control study was conducted from October to December 2017 among 95 cases and 190 controls in Dire Dawa city. Dire Dawa is one of the two chartered cities in Ethiopia like the capital city Addis Ababa. Cases and controls were identified and selected randomly from the health facilities. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. We used logistic regression to model the associations of independent variables with PTB infection.


PTB was associated with patients' education (no formal education vs. formal education) (adjusted odds ratio [AQR] [95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0, [1.3, 7.1]), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status (AOR [95% CI]: 3.1: [1.1,9.1]), previous contact history with TB patient (AOR [95% CI]: 9.9 [4.3,23.0]), body mass index (BMI) of ≤18 (AOR [95% CI]: 14.9 [6.4,35.1]), and cigarette smoking history (ever vs. never) (AOR [95% CI]: 6.7 [2.3,19.5]).


This study showed that patients' educational status, HIV status, cigarette smoking, contact history with PTB patient, and BMI were independently associated with being infected with PTB. To reduce PTB transmission, peoples should be educated on TB prevention and consequences of risky behaviors.


Determinant; Dire Dawa; Ethiopia; pulmonary tuberculosis infection

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