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Surg Endosc. 2019 Jun 17. doi: 10.1007/s00464-019-06911-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Canadian consensus statement: enhanced recovery after surgery in bariatric surgery.

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Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, 8440 112 Street NW, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7, Canada.
Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada.
Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Department of Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Richmond, BC, Canada.
Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Department of Surgery, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.



In Canada, bariatric surgery continues to remain the most effective treatment for severe obesity and its comorbidities. As the number of bariatric surgeries continues to grow, the need for consensus guidelines for optimal perioperative care is imperative. In colorectal surgery, enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols were created for this purpose. The objective of this review is to develop evidence-based ERAS guidelines for bariatric surgery.


A literature search of the MEDLINE database was performed using ERAS-specific search terms. Recently published articles with a focus on randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were included. Quality of evidence and recommendations were evaluated using the GRADE assessment system.


Canadian bariatric surgeons from six provinces and ten bariatric centers performed a review of the evidence surrounding ERAS in bariatric surgery and created consensus guidelines for 14 essential ERAS elements. Our main recommendations were (1) to encourage participation in a presurgical weight loss program; (2) to abstain from tobacco and excessive alcohol; (3) low-calorie liquid diet for at least 2 weeks prior to surgery; (4) to avoid preanesthetic anxiolytics and long-acting opioids; (5) unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin prior to surgery; (6) antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin ± metronidazole; (7) reduced opioids during surgery; (8) surgeon preference regarding intraoperative leak testing; (9) nasogastric intubation needed only for Veress access; (10) to avoid abdominal drains and urinary catheters; (11) to prevent ileus by discontinuing intravenous fluids early; (12) postoperative analgesia with acetaminophen, short-term NSAIDS, and minimal opioids; (13) to resume full fluid diet on first postoperative day; (14) early telephone follow-up with full clinic follow-up at 3-4 weeks.


The purpose of addressing these ERAS elements is to develop guidelines that can be implemented and practiced clinically. ERAS is an excellent model that improves surgical efficiency and acts as a common perioperative pathway. In the interim, this multimodal bariatric perioperative guideline serves as a common consensus point for Canadian bariatric surgeons.


Bariatric surgery; Enhanced recovery; Fast track; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy


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