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Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2019 Jun 18;51(3):556-563. doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2019.03.027.

[Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism of Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate in the Chinese population].

[Article in Chinese]

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Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.
Department of Center Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.
Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510000, China.
Department of Orthodontics, Yantai Stomatological Hospital, Yantai 264000, Shandong, China.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.



To study the relationship between Sonic hedgehog (Shh) associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P), and to explore the risk factors of cleft lip and/or palate. Many studies suggest that the pathogenesis of NSCL/P could be related to genes that control early development, in which the Shh signaling pathway plays an important role.


Peripheral blood was collected from 197 individuals (100 patients with NSCL/P and 97 healthy controls). Haploview software was used for haplotype analysis and Tag SNP were selected, based on the population data of Han Chinese in Beijing of the international human genome haplotype mapping project. A total of 27 SNP were selected for the 4 candidate genes of SHH, PTCH1, SMO and GLI2 in the Shh signaling pathway. The genotypes of 27 SNP were detected and analyzed by Sequenom mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by chi-squared test and an unconditional Logistic regression model.


The selected SNP basically covered the potential functional SNP of the target genes, and its minimum allele frequency (MAF) was >0.05: GLI2 73.5%, PTCH1 91.0%, SMO 100.0%, and SHH 75.0%. It was found that the genotype frequency of SNP (rs12674259) located in SMO gene and SNP (rs2066836) located in PTCH1 gene were significantly different between the NSCL/P group and the control group. Linkage disequilibrium was also found on 3 chromosomes (chromosomes 2, 7 and 9) where the 4 candidate genes were located. However, in the analysis of linkage imbalance haplotype, there was no significant difference between the disease group and the control group.


In China, NSCL/P is the most common congenital disease in orofacial region. However, as it is a multigenic disease and could be affected by multiple factors, such as the external environment, the etiology of NSCL/P has not been clearly defined. This study indicates that Shh signaling pathway is involved in the occurrence of NSCL/P, and some special SNP of key genes in this pathway are related to cleft lip and/or palate, which provides a new direction for the etiology research of NSCL/P and may provide help for the early screening and risk prediction of NSCL/P.

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