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Nutrients. 2019 Jun 15;11(6). pii: E1352. doi: 10.3390/nu11061352.

Subjective Hunger, Gastric Upset, and Sleepiness in Response to Altered Meal Timing during Simulated Shiftwork.

Author information

1
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. charlotte.gupta@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
2
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. Stephanie.Centofanti@unisa.edu.au.
3
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. Jill.Dorrian@unisa.edu.au.
4
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. Alison.coates@unisa.edu.au.
5
Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, 5000 Adelaide, Australia. Alison.coates@unisa.edu.au.
6
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. Jackie.Stepien-Hulleman@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
7
Robinson Research Institute and Adelaide School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 5000 Adelaide, Australia. David.kennaway@adelaide.edu.au.
8
Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, 5000Adelaide, Australia. Gary.wittert@adelaide.edu.au.
9
Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, 5000Adelaide, Australia. Leonie.heilbronn@adelaide.edu.au.
10
South Australia Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), 5000 Adelaide, Australia. Leonie.heilbronn@adelaide.edu.au.
11
Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, 5042 Adelaide, Australia. Peter.catcheside@flinders.edu.au.
12
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Food and Nutrition Flagship, 5000 Adelaide, Australia. Mannynoakes@icloud.com.
13
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. Daniel.Coro@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
14
Cognitive Ageing Impairment Neurosciences Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. Dilushi.chandrakumar@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
15
Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia. siobhan.banks@unisa.edu.au.

Abstract

Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m2) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; n = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; n = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; n = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group (p < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger (p < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal (p < 0.001) or when not eating during the night (p < 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness.

KEYWORDS:

gastric upset; meal timing; nightshift; shiftwork; snack

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