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Biomed Res Int. 2019 May 7;2019:3494937. doi: 10.1155/2019/3494937. eCollection 2019.

Vitamin D as a Principal Factor in Mediating Rheumatoid Arthritis-Derived Immune Response.

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Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic multifactorial autoimmune disorder. The interactions between diverse environmental and genetic factors lead to the onset of this complex autoimmune disorder. Serum levels of vitamin D (VD) are involved in the regulation of various immune responses. Vitamin D is a key signaling molecule in the human body that maintains calcium as well as phosphate homeostasis. It also regulates the functions of the immune system and, thus, can play a substantial role in the etiology of various autoimmune disorders, including RA. Low serum VD levels have been found to be associated with a higher risk of RA, although this finding has not been replicated consistently. The molecular mechanisms by which VD influences autoimmunity need to be further explored to understand how variation in plasma VD levels could affect the pathogenesis of RA. This mini-review focuses on the influence of VD and its serum levels on RA susceptibility, RA-associated complexities, treatment, and transcriptome products of key proinflammatory cytokines, along with other cytokines that are key regulators of inflammation in rheumatoid joints.

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