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J Hazard Mater. 2019 May 29;378:120702. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.05.095. [Epub ahead of print]

Activation of fulvic acid-like in paper mill effluents using H2O2/TiO2 catalytic oxidation: Characterization and salt stress bioassays.

Author information

1
National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering & Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, 271018, China.
2
National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering & Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, 271018, China. Electronic address: yangyuechao2010@163.com.
3
Department of Soil and Water Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Homestead, FL, 33031, USA.
4
State Key Laboratory of Nutrition Resources Integrated Utilization, Kinggenta Ecological Engineering Group Co., Ltd, Linshu, Shandong, 276700, China.
5
Key Laboratory of Humic Acid Fertilizer of Ministry of Agriculture, Shandong Agricultural University Fertilizer Technology Co. Ltd, Feicheng, Shandong, 271600, China.
6
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.
7
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Florence, SC, 29501, USA.

Abstract

Increasing environmental concerns about organic waste in paper mill effluents demand alternative wastewater management technology. We reported novel activation of fulvic acid-like in paper mill effluents using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidizer and titanium oxide (TiO2) as catalyst. Spectroscopic characteristics of fulvic acid-like in paper mill effluents before and after activation (PFA and PFA-Os, respectively) were compared with a benchmark fulvic acid extracted from leonardite (LFA). Results indicated that PFA-Os exhibited less lignin structures, more functional groups and lower molecular weight than PFA, sharing much similarity with LFA. Among PFA-Os with varying degrees of oxidation, PFA-O-3 activated with 1:2 vol ratio of paper mill effluent and 30% H2O2 for 20 min digestion at 90 °C stands out to be the optimal for further examination of its biological activity. Bioassays with rice seed/seedling indicated that applications of LFA at 2-5 mg-C/L and PFA-O-3 at 60-100 mg-C/L significantly increased rice seed germination rate and seedling growth under salt stress imposed with 100 mM NaCl. The mechanism was mainly through reduced oxidative damage via activation of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation. This study provides the needed technical basis of safer and cleaner technologies for innovative management of paper mill effluents.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidative enzymes; Fulvic acid-like; Paper mill effluents; Rice seedling; Salt stress

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