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Exp Gerontol. 2019 Sep;124:110632. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2019.110632. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Immunosenescence: A systems-level overview of immune cell biology and strategies for improving vaccine responses.

Author information

1
Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: crooke.stephen@mayo.edu.
2
Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: ovsyannikova.inna@mayo.edu.
3
Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: poland.gregory@mayo.edu.
4
Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: kennedy.rick@mayo.edu.

Abstract

Immunosenescence contributes to a decreased capacity of the immune system to respond effectively to infections or vaccines in the elderly. The full extent of the biological changes that lead to immunosenescence are unknown, but numerous cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity exhibit altered phenotypes and function as a result of aging. These manifestations of immunosenescence at the cellular level are mediated by dysregulation at the genetic level, and changes throughout the immune system are, in turn, propagated by numerous cellular interactions. Environmental factors, such as nutrition, also exert significant influence on the immune system during aging. While the mechanisms that govern the onset of immunosenescence are complex, systems biology approaches allow for the identification of individual contributions from each component within the system as a whole. Although there is still much to learn regarding immunosenescence, systems-level studies of vaccine responses have been highly informative and will guide the development of new vaccine candidates, novel adjuvant formulations, and immunotherapeutic drugs to improve vaccine responses among the aging population.

KEYWORDS:

Adjuvants; Aging; Immunity; Immunosenescence; Senolytics; Systems biology; Vaccinology

PMID:
31201918
PMCID:
PMC6849399
[Available on 2020-09-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.exger.2019.110632

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