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Cancer Sci. 2019 Aug;110(8):2658-2666. doi: 10.1111/cas.14098. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Novel strategy of ovarian cancer implantation: Pre-invasive growth of fibrin-anchored cells with neovascularization.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
Institute for Experimental Animals, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
Department of Nursing, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical, and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.


Although direct adhesion of cancer cells to the mesothelial cell layer is considered to be a key step for peritoneal invasion of ovarian cancer cell masses (OCM), we recently identified a different strategy for the peritoneal invasion of OCM. In 6 out of 20 cases of ovarian carcinoma, extraperitoneal growth of the OCM was observed along with the neovascularization of feeding vessels, which connect the intraperitoneal host stroma and extraperitoneal lesions through the intact mesothelial cell layer. As an early step, the OCMs anchor in the extraperitoneal fibrin networks and then induce the migration of CD34-positive and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-positive endothelial cells, constructing extraperitoneal vascular networks around the OCM. During the extraperitoneal growth of OCM, podoplanin-positive and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) appears. In more advanced lesions, the boundary line of mesothelial cells disappears around the insertion areas of feeding vessels and then extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal stroma are integrated, enabling the OCM to invade the host stroma, being associated with CAF. In addition, tissue factors (TF) are strongly detected around these peritoneal implantation sites and their levels in ascites were higher than that in blood. These findings demonstrate the presence of neovascularization around fibrin net-anchored OCMs on the outer side of the intact peritoneal surface, suggesting a novel strategy for peritoneal invasion of ovarian cancer and TF-targeted intraperitoneal anti-cancer treatment. We observed and propose a novel strategy for peritoneal implantation of ovarian cancer. The strategy includes the preinvasive growth of fibrin-anchored cancer cells along with neovascularization on the outer side of the intact peritoneal surface.


extraperitoneal neovascularization; mesothelial barrier; ovarian cancer cell mass; peritoneal invasion; tissue factor

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