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J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 May;8(5):1533-1539. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_35_19.

Cytochemical tests to investigate sperm DNA damage: Assessment and review.

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Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.


Male factor infertility has been diagnosed as the cause of infertility in about 20% of infertile couples. Sperm analysis is the most common method for diagnosing infertility in a laboratory. However, approximately 15% of infertile men have a normal sperm analysis. Therefore, the result of a routine sperm analysis often cannot be a definitive diagnosis for male factor infertility. Also, approximately 8% of infertile men with normal sperm parameters have high levels of abnormal sperm DNA. This indicates the role of the integrity of sperm DNA in male infertility. Here, we review the current tests available to evaluate the sperm DNA integrity along with their benefits and limitations.


Aniline blue; TUNEL; chromatin; chromomycin A3; sperm; toluidine blue

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