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Anesth Essays Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;13(2):389-394. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_37_19.

A Comparative Clinical Study between Clonidine and Tramadol with Bupivacaine in Caudal Epidural for Postoperative Analgesia in Pediatric Surgery.

Author information

Department of Anaesthesiology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Kodagu, Karnataka, India.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Sakra World Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Anaesthesiology, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Anaesthesiology, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.



Adjuvants to bupivacaine for single shot caudal block in children.


This study entitled was conducted to compare the effects of addition of tramadol to bupivacaine over addition of clonidine to bupivacaine as a single shot caudal block in children.

Settings and Design:

Sixty children of ASA grade I and II in the age group of 2-12 years coming for various infra-umbilical surgeries were included.

Materials and Methods:

They were divided into two groups of 30 each. Group BC received caudal bupivacaine 0.25% 0.5ml/kg with clonidine 2 mcg/kg Group BT received caudal bupivacaine 0.25% 0.5 ml/kg with tramadol 2 mg/kg. The main parameters studied were hemodynamic changes, duration of post-operative analgesia and incidence of adverse effects.

Statistical Analysis Used:

The results of continuous variables are given as mean ± SD and proportion as percentage. The difference between the two groups was assessed by student's - t test and chi-square test.


The mean duration of post-operative analgesia in group BT was statistically significant (P <0.001), reducing the requirement of analgesics in group BT. There was no difference in sedation score, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention.


The present study demonstrated that caudal administration of bupivacaine 0.25% 0.5 ml/kg with tramadol 2 mg/kg resulted in superior analgesia with longer duration of action and reduced requirement of analgesics in first 24 hours postoperatively when compared with 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5 ml/kg with clonidine 2 mcg/kg.


Adjuvants; caudal space; epidural space; post operative analgesia; sedation

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