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Anesth Essays Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;13(2):383-388. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_83_19.

Nonpneumatic Anti-Shock Garment versus Intermittent Sequential Compression Device for Prevention of Postspinal Hypotension in Patients Undergoing Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Study.

Author information

Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, New Delhi, India.



Postspinal hypotension remains a frequent complication of subarachnoid block during cesarean section causing further maternal and fetal adverse effects.


This study aims to evaluate and compare a continuous pressure nonpneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) and an intermittent sequential compression device (SCD) with a control group for prevention of postspinal hypotension in women undergoing elective cesarean section.

Settings and Design:

A randomized, observer blind, controlled study at single university hospital.

Subjects and Methods:

Ninety singleton term parturients between 18 and 35 years of age undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to be applied with NASG, SCD, or no device; n = 30 in each group. A standardized protocol for cohydration and anesthetic technique was followed. The primary outcome measure was incidence of hypotension defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 20% from baseline or an absolute value <100 mmHg, whichever was higher. The secondary outcome measures were median dose of ephedrine required, incidence of maternal nausea and vomiting, and neonatal Apgar scores.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Results were expressed as mean (±standard deviation), median (range), or number (%) as appropriate. Nominal data were compared using Chi-square/Fischer's exact test. Continuous data were compared using ANOVA one-way test. Nonparametric data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test.


In Groups NASG, SCD, and C, incidence of hypotension was 60%, 83%, and 90%, respectively (P = 0.021), with significant reduction in incidence of hypotension in Group NASG versus Group C (P < 0.001, odds ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.68). Median (interquartile range) dose of ephedrine required was significantly less in Group NASG compared with Groups SCD and C, respectively (P = 0.002, P < 0.001).


NASG proved to be a more effective device for prevention of postspinal hypotension when compared with application of SCD or no device.


Anesthesia; gravity suits; hypotension prevention and control; intermittent pneumatic compression devices; obstetrical anesthesia side effects

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