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Anesth Essays Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;13(2):313-316. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_19_19.

Comparison of Nebulized Ketamine and Ketamine with Clonidine in Postoperative Sore Throat.

Author information

1
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.
2
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Rungta College of Dental Sciences and Research, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India.

Abstract

Background:

Various nonpharmacological and pharmacological trials have been used for attenuating postoperative sore throat (POST) with no proven single modality. Ketamine has been used as a gargle or nebulization in the attenuation of POST by its action on peripheral N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Topical administration of clonidine elicits antinociception through α2-adrenoceptors without producing undesirable side effect.

Aim:

This study aims to compare between nebulized ketamine and ketamine with clonidine in POST.

Materials and Methods:

The effects of nebulized ketamine and ketamine with clonidine in POST have been compared in 100 patients. Patients were divided into two groups: Group K patients were nebulized with ketamine 1 mL (50 mg) plus normal saline 3 mL and Group KC patients were nebulized with ketamine 1 mL (50 mg) plus clonidine 1 mL (50 mg) plus normal saline 2 mL. Online statistical software was used for analysis of the data.

Results:

At 4 h, seven patients experienced sore throat in Group K while no incidence was reported in group KC (0%). At 8 h, 12 (85.7%) patients experienced sore throat in Group K and 2 (14.28%) patients in Group KC. At 12 h, 13 (81.25%) patients experienced sore throat in Group K and 3 (18.75%) patients of Group KC. At 24 h, 6 (85.71%) patients experienced sore throat in Group K and 1 (14.28%) patient in Group KC. Patients in both groups remained hemodynamically stable with no complaint of nausea, vomiting, sedation, laryngospasm, or any other side effect.

Conclusion:

Nebulization with ketamine plus clonidine preoperatively is more effective in reducing POST with no adverse effects as compared to preoperative nebulization with ketamine.

KEYWORDS:

Clonidine; ketamine; nebulization

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