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Anesth Essays Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;13(2):292-296. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_31_19.

Efficacy of a Bolus Dose of Esmolol and Bolus Dose of Lignocaine for Attenuating the Pressor Response to Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in General Anesthesia: A Comparative Study.

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Department of Anaesthesia, Shri B M Patil Medical College and Hospital, Bijapur, Karnataka, India.
Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College and Hospital, Bijapur, Karnataka, India.



Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation result in an increase in heart rate and blood pressure; they evoke life-threatening complications. The esmolol is short-acting cardioselective beta-blocker and brings advantages to the perioperative management of tachycardia and hypertension.


The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a bolus dose of esmolol and bolus dose of lignocaine for attenuation of the pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

Settings and Design:

Sixty patients of both sex, aged 20-50 years, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II randomly allocated into two groups (n = 30).

Materials and Methods:

The study drugs diluted in 10-ml normal saline. Group I received esmolol 1.5 mg/kg and Group II received lignocaine 1.5 mg/kg 2 min before inducing the patients with thiopentone 5 mg/kg and suxamethonium 1.5 mg/kg. The heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured at basal, during intubation, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 min after intubation, and based on these values, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated.

Statistical Analysis Used:

The Student's t-test and data were represented by mean standard deviation and graphs.


The mean pulse rate, mean of MAP, and mean of RPP at intubation and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 min after intubation in lignocaine group showed a significant rise in these values but in esmolol group it remained nearer to or less than baseline values.


Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg is effective in attenuating the pressor response in comparison with lignocaine 1.5 mg/kg during laryngoscopy and intubation.


Esmolol; laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation; lignocaine; pressor response

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