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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jun 18;73(23):2976-2987. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.500.

Cardiac Radiation Dose, Cardiac Disease, and Mortality in Patients With Lung Cancer.

Author information

1
Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
2
Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
4
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
7
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
8
Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
9
Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: rmak@partners.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Radiotherapy-associated cardiac toxicity studies in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been limited by small sample size and nonvalidated cardiac endpoints.

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this analysis was to ascertain whether cardiac radiation dose is a predictor of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM).

METHODS:

This retrospective analysis included 748 consecutive locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy. Fine and Gray and Cox regressions were used to identify predictors for MACE and ACM, adjusting for lung cancer and cardiovascular prognostic factors, including pre-existing coronary heart disease (CHD).

RESULTS:

After a median follow-up of 20.4 months, 77 patients developed ≥1 MACE (2-year cumulative incidence, 5.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3% to 7.7%), and 533 died. Mean radiation dose delivered to the heart (mean heart dose) was associated with a significantly increased risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05/Gy; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.08/Gy; p < 0.001) and ACM (adjusted HR: 1.02/Gy; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.03/Gy; p = 0.007). Mean heart dose (≥10 Gy vs. <10 Gy) was associated with a significantly increased risk of ACM in CHD-negative patients (178 vs. 118 deaths; HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.69; p = 0.014) with 2-year estimates of 52.2% (95% CI: 46.1% to 58.5%) versus 40.0% (95% CI: 33.5% to 47.4%); but not among CHD-positive patients (112 vs. 82 deaths; HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.25; p = 0.66) with 2-year estimates of 54.6% (95% CI: 46.8% to 62.7%) versus 50.8% (95% CI: 41.5% to 60.9%), respectively (p for interaction = 0.028).

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite the competing risk of cancer-specific death in locally advanced NSCLC patients, cardiac radiation dose exposure is a modifiable cardiac risk factor for MACE and ACM, supporting the need for early recognition and treatment of cardiovascular events and more stringent avoidance of high cardiac radiotherapy dose.

KEYWORDS:

NSCLC; cardiac toxicity; cardiotoxicity; non–small cell lung cancer; radiotherapy

PMID:
31196455
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.500
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