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Stem Cell Res Ther. 2019 Jun 13;10(1):172. doi: 10.1186/s13287-019-1281-2.

Small molecule inhibitor of TGF-β signaling enables robust osteogenesis of autologous GMSCs to successfully repair minipig severe maxillofacial bone defects.

Author information

1
Department of Dental Implantology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, 30 Zhongyang Road, Nanjing, 210008, China.
2
Nanjing Key Laboratory, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.
3
Clinical Stem Cell Center, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210008, China.
4
Clinical Stem Cell Center, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210008, China. wangbin022800@126.com.
5
Department of Dental Implantology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, 30 Zhongyang Road, Nanjing, 210008, China. haiyanandrew@163.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clinically, for stem cell-based therapy (SCBT), autologous stem cells are considered better than allogenic stem cells because of little immune rejection and no risk of communicable disease infection. However, severe maxillofacial bone defects restoration needs sufficient autologous stem cells, and this remains a challenge worldwide. Human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) derived from clinically discarded, easily obtainable, and self-healing autologous gingival tissues, have higher proliferation rate compared with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). But for clinical bone regeneration purpose, GMSCs have inferior osteogenic differentiation capability. In this study, a TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB431542 was used to enhance GMSCs osteogenesis in vitro and to repair minipig severe maxillofacial bone defects.

METHODS:

hGMSCs were isolated and cultured from clinically discarded gingival tissues. The effects of SB431542 on proliferation, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation of hGMSCs were analyzed in vitro, and then, SB431542-treated hGMSCs composited with Bio-Oss® were transplanted into immunocompromised mice subcutaneously to explore osteogenic differentiation in vivo. After that, SB431542-treated autologous pig GMSCs (pGMSCs) composited with Bio-Oss® were transplanted into circular confined defects (5 mm × 12 mm) in minipigs maxillary to investigate severe bone defect regeneration. Minipigs were sacrificed at 2 months and nude mice at 8 weeks to retrieve specimens for histological or micro-CT or CBCT analysis. Effects of SB431542 on TGF-β and BMP signaling in hGMSCs were investigated by Western Blot or qRT-PCR.

RESULTS:

One micromolar of SB431542 treatment induced a robust osteogenesis of hGMSCs in vitro, without adverse effect on apoptosis and growth. In vivo, 1 μM SB431542 treatment also enabled striking osteogenesis of hGMSCs subcutaneously in nude mice and advanced new bone formation of pGMSCs in minipig maxillary bone defect model. In addition, SB431542-treated hGMSCs markedly increased bone-related proteins expression, and BMP2 and BMP4 gene expression. Conversely, SMAD3 protein-dependent TGF-β signal pathway phosphorylation was decreased.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study show that osteogenic differentiation of GMSCs treated with TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB431542 was increased, and SB431542-treated autologous pig GMSCs could successfully repair minipig severe maxillofacial bone defects. This preclinical study brings about a promising large bone regeneration therapeutic potential of autologous GMSCs induced by SB431542 in clinic settings.

KEYWORDS:

BMP; Bone defect; GMSCs; Osteogenic differentiation; SB431542; TGF-β signaling

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