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PLoS One. 2019 Jun 13;14(6):e0218391. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218391. eCollection 2019.

Elsinochrome phytotoxin production and pathogenicity of Elsinoë arachidis isolates in China.

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Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.


Peanut scab caused by Elsinoë arachidis is found throughout China's peanut-growing areas. Elsinochrome produced by E. arachidis is a perylenequinone photosensitive mycotoxin vital to the pathogenic process of the pathogen. In this study, the complex mechanism underlying the regulation of elsinochrome biosynthesis by E. arachidis was investigated based on various nutritional and environmental factors. The initiation of elsinochrome biosynthesis depends on light. E. arachidis produced substantially more quantities of elsinochrome when grown on a semi-synthetic medium (PDA) than when grown on synthetic media with defined ingredients in the presence of light. Elsinochrome accumulation decreased when adjusted with either citrate or phosphate buffers and changing pH suppressed the radical growth. At temperatures ranging from 10°C to 25°C, the production of elsinochrome increased, peaking at 28°C, and it decreased slightly at 30°C. 63 field-collected isolates from China were assessed for the level of elsinochrome production, and pathogenicity analysis was conducted by selecting 12 strains from each 3 of the 4 groups with different levels of elsinochrome production. A direct correlation was observed between elsinochrome production and pathogenicity among the isolates. The results showed elsinochrome biosynthesis to be controlled by E. arachidis and showed elsinochrome to be a vital virulence factor of E. arachidis, required for disease severity.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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