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AIDS Care. 2019 Jun 12:1-9. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1612005. [Epub ahead of print]

Development and content validation of the Multifactoral assessment of perceived social support (MAPSS), a brief, patient-reported measure of social support for use in HIV care.

Author information

1
a Department of Medicine , University of Washington , Seattle , USA.
2
b Department of General Internal Medicine , University of Washington , Seattle , USA.
3
c 1917 Clinic , University of Alabama-Birmingham , Seattle , USA.
4
d Fenway Community Health.
5
e Department of Social Work , University of Alabama-Birmingham , Seattle , USA.
6
f Owen Clinic , University of California-San Diego , Seattle , USA.
7
g Department of Medicine , University of California-San Diego , Seattle , USA.
8
h Department of Medicine , University of California-San Francisco , Seattle , USA.
9
i Department of Medicine , University of Alabama-Birmingham , Seattle , USA.

Abstract

Low perceived social support (SS) negatively impacts health outcomes. We developed a measure of perceived SS for use in HIV care. We sought and categorized legacy items, selecting strongest items within categories. We elicited SS concepts from patients in English/Spanish, coded transcripts to match item pool content, and developed new items for salient unrepresented content. In focus groups, patients prioritized highly-matched items. We conducted cognitive interviews on high-priority items, and validity testing on final items against two legacy measures. From interviews (n = 32), we matched the following concepts: sense of belonging/inclusion; communication; emotional support; feeling accepted by others as a person; companionship; and practical support. We identified a new concept: support from friends/family in remaining healthy. Focus groups (n = 23) prioritized emotional support, communication, and support to remain healthy. Cognitive interviews (n = 30) found items were well-understood. The final 8-item measure performed well with patients (n = 708), with good construct validity. We used an Item Response Theory program to create a 3-item Short Form version of the measure, which captures 96% of patients indicating low social support. We developed the Multifactoral Assessment of Perceived Social Support (MAPSS) and Short Form (MAPSS-SF); brief, clinically relevant, sufficiently unidimensional measures of SS for use in HIV care.

KEYWORDS:

HIV care; Social support; patient-reported outcomes

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