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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jun 12;13(6):e0007478. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007478. eCollection 2019 Jun.

Outcomes of Third-Generation Cephalosporin Plus Ciprofloxacin or Doxycycline Therapy in Patients with Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwang-ju, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Biomedical Science, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwang-ju, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwang-ju, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Combination therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin (TGC) and a tetracycline analogue is recommended for Vibrio vulnificus infection. The combination of a TGC and ciprofloxacin has synergistic in vitro bactericidal activity against V. vulnificus. No clinical study has compared the standard regimen with TGC plus ciprofloxacin therapy for V. vulnificus infection.

METHODS:

Patients with a confirmed V. vulnificus infection at two medical centers in Korea from 1991 to 2016 were enrolled in this study. The patients were grouped according to the type of antibiotic administered. A retrospective propensity-score-matched case-control study of patients treated with TGC plus doxycycline or TGC plus ciprofloxacin was performed. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patients were analyzed.

RESULTS:

A total of 218 patients were confirmed to have V. vulnificus septicemia during the study, and the 30-day survival rate was 39% (85/218). The patients were classified into the following six treatment groups: TGC monotherapy (n = 82), TGC plus doxycycline therapy (n = 42), TGC plus ciprofloxacin therapy (n = 39), ciprofloxacin monotherapy (n = 14), other β-lactam monotherapy (n = 10), and other (n = 31). The survival rates of these groups were as follows: TGC monotherapy (35%), TGC plus doxycycline (38%), TGC plus ciprofloxacin (54%), ciprofloxacin monotherapy (29%), other β-lactam (20%), and other (39%). The 30-day survival rate showed no significant difference between the TGC plus doxycycline and TGC plus ciprofloxacin groups (log-rank test, P = 0.18). Among the 81 patients treated with TGC plus doxycycline or TGC plus ciprofloxacin, 12 per treatment group were selected by propensity-score matching. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics or the frequency of fasciotomy between the two groups. The 30-day survival rate showed no significant difference between the TGC plus doxycycline (50%) and TGC plus ciprofloxacin (67%) groups (log-rank test, P = 0.46).

CONCLUSION:

Our data suggest that the outcome of TGC plus ciprofloxacin therapy was comparable to that of TGC plus doxycycline therapy in patients with V. vulnificus septicemia.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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