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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Sep 1;317(3):G314-G332. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00104.2019. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

NTPDase1 and -2 are expressed by distinct cellular compartments in the mouse colon and differentially impact colonic physiology and function after DSS colitis.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
3
Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Quebec, Canada.
4
Département de Microbiologie-Infectiologie et d'Immunologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec City, Quebec, Canada.
5
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

ATP is both an important mediator of physiological gut functions such as motility and epithelial function, and a key danger signal that mediates cell death and tissue damage. The actions of extracellular ATP are regulated through the catalytic functions extracellular nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1), -2, -3, and -8, which ultimately generate nucleosides. Ectonucleotidases have distinct cellular associations, but the specific locations and functional roles of individual NTPDases in the intestine are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differential and cell-selective regulation of purine hydrolysis by NTPDase1 and -2 plays important roles in gut physiology and disease. We studied Entpd1 and Entpd2 null mice in health and following colitis driven by 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration using functional readouts of gut motility, epithelial barrier function, and neuromuscular communication. NTPDase1 is expressed by immune cells, and the ablation of Entpd1 altered glial numbers in the myenteric plexus. NTPDase2 is expressed by enteric glia, and the ablation of Entpd2 altered myenteric neuron numbers. Mice lacking either NTPDase1 or -2 exhibited decreased inhibitory neuromuscular transmission and altered components of inhibitory junction potentials. Ablation of Entpd2 increased gut permeability following inflammation. In conclusion, the location- and context-dependent extracellular nucleotide phosphohydrolysis by NTPDase1 and -2 substantially impacts gut function in health and disease.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Purines are important mediators of gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) regulate extracellular purines, but the roles of specific NTPDases in gut functions are poorly understood. Here, we used Entpd1- and Entpd2-deficient mice to show that the differential and cell-selective regulation of purine hydrolysis by NTPDase1 and -2 plays important roles in barrier function, gut motility, and neuromuscular communication in health and disease.

KEYWORDS:

IBD; enteric nervous system; glia; inflammatory bowel disease; purines

PMID:
31188623
DOI:
10.1152/ajpgi.00104.2019

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