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Niger Postgrad Med J. 2019 Apr-Jun;26(2):113-117. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_22_19.

Factors influencing the outcome of spontaneous intracerebral haematoma in a Neurosurgical Hospital in South-East Nigeria.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Memfys Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.



Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) is a major cause of stroke worldwide. SICH management is still challenging, especially in developing countries. This study highlights certain factors affecting outcome of SICH managed in a Nigerian Neurosurgical centre, on a background of the modernisation of the patient care facilities.

Materials and Methods:

Retrospective analysis of patients managed for SICH at Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery and Neurology in Enugu from years 2009-2016. All patients had computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis. Treatment included medical, surgical and intensive care unit (ICU) care. Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and trauma were excluded. Factors analysed include age, admission Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), haematoma location, complications encountered during admission, duration of hospital stay and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS).


There were 66 cases, age range of 21-85 years (mean 57 years). A total of 30 (45.5%) patients were admitted with GCS ≤ 8/15; 63.3% of these died within 6 months. The proportion of mortalities was 63.6% (>70 years) and 35.6% (41-70 years). Most commonly associated complication was chest infection 27 (40.9%), with 56.6% mortality. Common haematoma locations were basal ganglia (43.9%) and lobar haemorrhage (40.9%) with a similar effect on outcome (P = 0.098). Outcomes were GOS 1: (43.9%), GOS 5: (30.3%) and GOS 4: (13.6%). Among 42 (63.3%) admitted to ICU, 25 (59.5%) died, while 11 (26.2%) achieved GOS of ≥ 4 at 6 months. Those discharged between days 11 and 20 had 26.7% mortality while 53.3% were independent.


Good admission GCS, absence of chest infections, younger age group are predictors of good outcome following SICH. Anatomical location of haemorrhage alone does not have a significant impact on 6 months' mortality.


Factors; intracerebral haemorrhage; outcome; spontaneous

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