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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Jun 8;192:105406. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105406. [Epub ahead of print]

Resveratrol inhibits DHT-induced progression of prostate cancer cell line through interfering with the AR and CXCR4 pathway.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
2
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kchoi@cbu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men world-wide and is known to be affected by the action of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via androgen receptor (AR). Resveratrol (Res) as a phytochemical in grapes and red wine has diverse biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. CXCR4 as a chemokine receptor has been found to be upregulated in cancer metastasis and has been used as a prognostic marker in various types of cancer, including leukemia, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. In this study, we focused on the role of DHT in the induction of prostate cancer progression by affecting the AR and CXCR4 pathway. Also, we investigated the inhibition effect of resveratrol on DHT-induced prostate cancer metastasis. In cell viability assay, DHT increased the cell viability of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, on the other hand, Res and its combination with bicalutamide (BCT) as an AR-antagonist or AMD3100 as a CXCR4 inhibitor significantly reduced the cell viability promoted by DHT. Trans-well migration assay and wound healing assay represented the similar results with cell viability assay. According to the results of TUNEL assay, the apoptotic activity was induced by treatment of Res. As results of western blot analysis, the expression of AR, CXCR4, p-PI3K, and p-AKT and the downstream genes related with cell cycle progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were decreased and the expression of the apoptosis-related genes was increased by treatment of Res and its combination with BCT or AMD3100. This study would suggest that Res and its combination with AR and CXCR4 antagonists can be used in order to suppress the metastatic behaviors of prostate cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Androgen receptor (AR); Apoptosis; C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4); Cell cycle; Dihydrotestosterone (DHT); Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); Resveratrol (Res)

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