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J Phys Chem Lett. 2019 Jul 5;10(13):3563-3570. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b01289. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Stimulated Raman Excited Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Visible Dyes.

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Department of Chemistry , Columbia University , New York , New York 10027 , United States.


Fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are two major classes of spectroscopy methods in physical chemistry. Very recently, stimulated Raman excited fluorescence (SREF) has been demonstrated ( Xiong, H.; et al. Nature Photonics , 2019 , 13 , 412 - 417 ) as a new hybrid spectroscopy that combines the vibrational specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the superb sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy (down to the single-molecule level). However, this proof-of-concept study was limited by both the tunability of the commercial laser source and the availability of the excitable molecules in the near-infrared. As a result, the generality of SREF spectroscopy remains unaddressed, and the understanding of the critical electronic preresonance condition is lacking. In this work, we built a modified excitation source to explore SREF spectroscopy in the visible region. Harnessing a large palette of red dyes, we have systematically studied SREF spectroscopy on a dozen different cases with a fine spectral interval of several nanometers. The results not only establish the generality of SREF spectroscopy for a wide range of molecules but also reveal a tight window of proper electronic preresonance for the stimulated Raman pumping process. Our theoretical modeling and further experiments on newly synthesized dyes also support the obtained insights, which would be valuable in designing and optimizing future SREF experiments for single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy and supermultiplex vibrational imaging.

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