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J Surg Res. 2019 Jun 7;243:173-179. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2019.04.087. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Children and Young Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Author information

1
University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. Electronic address: kerri.mckie@umassmed.edu.
2
Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.
3
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Both adult and pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) when compared with those without IBD. The risk factors for VTE in pediatric IBD patients, including those undergoing major surgery, have not been previously determined.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients (aged <21 y) were identified with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), diagnosis of IBD (555.X or 556.X) or Crohn's Disease (CD; 555.X) in the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 2006-2012. Procedure and ICD-9 diagnosis codes were scrutinized. VTE was defined by ICD-9 codes. National estimates were obtained using case weighting. Multivariable logistic regression was performed.

RESULTS:

A total of 44,554 and 28,132 patients were identified with IBD and CD, respectively. During their hospital admission, 456 (1.01%) IBD and 205 (0.72%) CD patients developed VTE. The oldest patients, those having increased length of stay, a major surgical procedure, or a hypercoagulable diagnosis had the highest rate of VTE with both IBD and CD. After performing adjusted logistic regression, undergoing a major surgical procedure was associated with 1.98 and 2.24 times greater odds of developing VTE for IBD and CD patients, respectively. A hypercoagulable diagnosis was associated with increasing the odds of VTE by 7.39 and 6.91 times in IBD and CD, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pediatric patients with IBD are at increased risk of VTE. Our study demonstrates undergoing a major surgical procedure or having a hypercoagulable diagnosis additionally increases the risk for VTE. Given these findings, VTE prophylaxis for this population should be further investigated.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

III.

KEYWORDS:

Crohn's disease; Inflammatory bowel disease; Pediatric surgery; Thromboembolic disease

PMID:
31181463
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2019.04.087

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