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Mol Med Rep. 2019 Jul;20(1):549-558. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10289. Epub 2019 May 23.

Bioinformatics analysis of the regulatory lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA network and drug prediction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, P.R. China.
Beijing Laboratory for Cardiovascular Precision Medicine, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, P.R. China.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex inherited cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the long noncoding (lnc)RNA/microRNA (mi)RNA/mRNA expression pattern of patients with HCM and aimed to identify key molecules involved in the development of this condition. An integrated strategy was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs), differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on the GSE36961 (mRNA), GSE36946 (miRNA), GSE68316 (lncRNA/mRNA) and GSE32453 (mRNA) expression profiles downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Bioinformatics tools were employed to perform function and pathway enrichment analysis, protein‑protein interaction, lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA and hub gene networks. Subsequently, DEGs were used as targets to predict drugs. The results indicated that a total of 2,234 DElncs (1,120 upregulated and 1,114 downregulated), 5 DEmiRs (2 upregulated and 3 downregulated) and 42 DEGs (35 upregulated and 7 downregulated) were identified in 4 microarray profiles. Gene ontology analysis revealed that DEGs were mainly involved in actin filament and stress fiber formation and in calcium ion binding, whereas Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis identified the hypoxia inducible factor‑1, transforming growth factor‑β and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways as the main pathways involved in these processes. The hub genes were screened using cytoHubba. A total of 1,086 lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA interactions including 67 lncRNAs, 5 miRNAs and 25 mRNAs were mined in the present study based on prediction websites. Drug prediction indicated that the targeted drugs mainly included angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or β‑blockers. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the molecular regulatory lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA network was performed and potential therapeutic applications of drugs were predicted in HCM patients. The data may unravel the future molecular mechanism of HCM.

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