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J Surg Educ. 2019 Jun 5. pii: S1931-7204(19)30308-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2019.05.013. [Epub ahead of print]

Video-Based Assessment in Surgical Education: A Scoping Review.

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Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:



Video-based assessment of residents' surgical skills may offer several advantages over direct observations of clinical performance in terms of objectivity, time-efficiency, and feasibility. Although video-based assessment is becoming more common in surgical training, a broad understanding of its utility is lacking. This scoping review explores video-based assessment in surgical training and presents the evidence supporting its use.


A literature search was conducted using the Web of Science database with key words related to video-based assessment and surgical training. Exclusion criteria included articles not published in English and articles on undergraduate medical education, continuing professional development, or non-surgical disciplines. Initially, 702 articles were identified; after title, abstract, and full-text screening by two independent reviewers (SM and VM), 199 articles remained.


We present the benefits of video-based assessment, including the ability to capture clinical ability in the operating room without decreasing intraoperative efficiency, as well as the potential to improve formative assessment and feedback practices. We describe the validity, reliability, and challenges of video-based assessment, as well as the use of video-based methods in clinical and simulated settings. We conclude by discussing questions that remain to be addressed.


Although further research and cost-benefit analyses are required, greater adoption of video-based assessment into surgical training may help meet increased assessment demands in an era of competency-based medical education.


Interpersonal and Communication Skills; Medical Knowledge; Patient Care; Practice Based Learning and Improvement; Professionalism; Video-based assessment; competency-based medical education; feedback; surgical education

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