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J Cataract Refract Surg. 2019 Jul;45(7):1026-1031. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2019.02.044. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Perioperative considerations and anesthesia management in patients with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing ophthalmic surgery.

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Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Adana Education and Research Centre, Adana, Turkey.
Department of Anaesthesia, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore.
Department of Anaesthesia, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore. Electronic address:
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by breathing cessation caused by obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. It is associated with multiorgan comorbidities such as obesity, hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, diabetes mellitus, and stroke. Patients with OSA have an increased prevalence of ophthalmic disorders such as cataract, glaucoma, central serous retinopathy (detachment of retina, macular hole), eyelid laxity, keratoconus, and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; and some might require surgery. Given that OSA is associated with a high incidence of perioperative complications and more than 80% of surgical patients with OSA are unrecognized, all surgical patients should be screened for OSA (eg, STOP-Bang questionnaire) with comorbidities identified. Patients suspected or diagnosed with OSA scheduled for ophthalmic surgery should have their comorbid conditions optimized. This article includes a review of the literature and highlights best perioperative anesthesia practices in the management of ophthalmic surgical patients with OSA.


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