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Viruses. 2019 Jun 6;11(6). pii: E525. doi: 10.3390/v11060525.

An Ancient Lineage of Highly Divergent Parvoviruses Infects both Vertebrate and Invertebrate Hosts.

Author information

1
McKnight Brain Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, 1149 Newell Dr, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. judit.penzes@ufl.edu.
2
Virology Research Center, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. wmarciel2@gmail.com.
3
McKnight Brain Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, 1149 Newell Dr, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. mckenna@ufl.edu.
4
Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. robert.gifford@glasgow.ac.uk.

Abstract

Chapparvoviruses (ChPVs) comprise a divergent, recently identified group of parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae), associated with nephropathy in immunocompromised laboratory mice and with prevalence in deep sequencing results of livestock showing diarrhea. Here, we investigate the biological and evolutionary characteristics of ChPVs via comparative in silico analyses, incorporating sequences derived from endogenous parvoviral elements (EPVs) as well as exogenous parvoviruses. We show that ChPVs are an ancient lineage within the Parvoviridae, clustering separately from members of both currently established subfamilies. Consistent with this, they exhibit a number of characteristic features, including several putative auxiliary protein-encoding genes, and capsid proteins with no sequence-level homology to those of other parvoviruses. Homology modeling indicates the absence of a β-A strand, normally part of the luminal side of the parvoviral capsid protein core. Our findings demonstrate that the ChPV lineage infects an exceptionally broad range of host species, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. Furthermore, we observe that ChPVs found in fish are more closely related to those from invertebrates than they are to those of amniote vertebrates. This suggests that transmission between distantly related host species may have occurred in the past and that the Parvoviridae family can no longer be divided based on host affiliation.

KEYWORDS:

Parvoviridae; chapparvovirus; densovirus; endogenous viral elements; homology modeling; new viruses; parvovirus evolution

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