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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Jun 4. pii: S1388-1981(19)30089-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.05.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Phosphatidylinositol synthesis at the endoplasmic reticulum.

Author information

1
Dept. of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Biosciences, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK.
2
Dept. of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Biosciences, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK. Electronic address: s.cockcroft@ucl.ac.uk.

Abstract

Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is a minor phospholipid with a characteristic fatty acid profile; it is highly enriched in stearic acid at the sn-1 position and arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position. PI is phosphorylated into seven specific derivatives, and individual species are involved in a vast array of cellular functions including signalling, membrane traffic, ion channel regulation and actin dynamics. De novo PI synthesis takes place at the endoplasmic reticulum where phosphatidic acid (PA) is converted to PI in two enzymatic steps. PA is also produced at the plasma membrane during phospholipase C signalling, where hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) leads to the production of diacylglycerol which is rapidly phosphorylated to PA. This PA is transferred to the ER to be also recycled back to PI. For the synthesis of PI, CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (CDS) converts PA to the intermediate, CDP-DG, which is then used by PI synthase to make PI. The de novo synthesised PI undergoes remodelling to acquire its characteristic fatty acid profile, which is altered in p53-mutated cancer cells. In mammals, there are two CDS enzymes at the ER, CDS1 and CDS2. In this review, we summarise the de novo synthesis of PI at the ER and the enzymes involved in its subsequent remodelling to acquire its characteristic acyl chains. We discuss how CDS, the rate limiting enzymes in PI synthesis are regulated by different mechanisms. During phospholipase C signalling, the CDS1 enzyme is specifically upregulated by cFos via protein kinase C.

KEYWORDS:

CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; Phosphatidylinositol synthase; Phosphatidylinositol synthesis; Protein kinase C; Remodelling of phosphatidylinositol; cFos; p53

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