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Reprod Toxicol. 2019 Aug;87:108-117. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.05.063. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Retinoic acid: A potential therapeutic agent for cryptorchidism infertility based on investigation of flutamide-induced cryptorchid rats in vivo and in vitro.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, China.
2
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, China. Electronic address: dzdy199@126.com.
3
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, China.
4
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang 550002, China.
5
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, China.
6
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27101, USA.
7
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, China.
8
Biomanufacturing Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
9
Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.
10
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, China. Electronic address: u806806@cqmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Cryptorchidism is a common disorder in children and may cause infertility in adults. The BTB is essential for maintaining the microenvironment necessary for normal spermatogenesis. This study investigated whether retinoic acid (RA) may regulate the proteins that are essential for integrity of the BTB in cryptorchidism. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated flutamide during late pregnancy to induce a model of cryptorchidism in male offspring. The concentrations of RA and BTB tight and gap junction protein levels were significantly lower in untreated cryptorchid pups compared with normal pups, but almost normal in cryptorchid pups given RA. Studies in vitro corroborated these findings. The sperm quality of RA-treated model pups was better compared with the untreated model. RA treatment may have therapeutic potential to restore retinoic acid and proteins associated with integrity of the BTB in cryptorchid testis.

KEYWORDS:

Blood-testis-barrier; Cryptorchidism; Flutamide; Retinoic acid; Vitamin A

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