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Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2019 Jun 6:1-9. doi: 10.1080/13645706.2019.1625404. [Epub ahead of print]

The value of virtual reality simulators in hysteroscopy and training capacity: a systematic review.

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a Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties , University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
b Department of Woman and Child Health , University of Padua , Padua , Italy.
c Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , University of Western Ontario , London , ON , Canada.
d Department of Public Health , School of Medicine, University of Naples "Federico II" , Naples , Italy.
e MARGen Clinic , Granada , Spain.


The aim of this study is to summarize evidence on the effectiveness of virtual reality simulators for experienced and novice surgeons in improving their hysteroscopic skills. Three types of hysteroscopic simulators were evaluated: Hyst Sim VR, Virtual Reality Uterine Resectoscopic Simulator, Essure Sim TM. Virtual reality simulators have been assessed to be highly relevant to reality and all surgeons attained significant improvements between their pre-test and post-test phases, independent of their previous level of experience, demonstrating more improvement among novices than experts. Available evidence supports the effectiveness of virtual simulators in increasing the diagnostic and surgical skills of gynaecologists, independent from their starting level of expertise.


Endoscopy; hysteroscopy; simulation; skills; training; virtual reality trainer

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