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J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jul-Sep;15(3):615-619. doi: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1326_16.

Comparison of different stains in exfoliated oral mucosal cell micronucleus of potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity.

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Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Faculty of Dental Sciences, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Micronucleus (MN) has been proved to be an important biomarker of genomic damage. Leishman Giemsa (LG) cocktail, being a relatively new staining technique, has not been used in exfoliative cytology. The aim of this study is to observe and compare the micronuclei (MN) frequency in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and also to compare the staining efficacy of May-Gr├╝nwald Giemsa (MGG), LG cocktail, and Papanicolaou (PAP) for micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells.

Materials and Methods:

Three smears were prepared from each 30 controls (buccal mucosa) and 120 patients (40 oral submucous fibrosis, 40 lichen planus, and 40 leukoplakia) clinically diagnosed with having one of the PMDs of the oral cavity stained with PAP, MGG, and LG cocktail stains. MN frequency (No. of MN/1000 cells) was evaluated and compared between the cases and the controls. Comparison between the three different stained smears was also made to determine the clarity and efficacy of the stains.


LG cocktail gave comparatively better results followed by PAP and MGG. Statistically significant results (P < 0.05) were obtained, using Mann-Whitney test for comparison of MN frequency between cases and controls.


LG cocktail is an easy, cost- effective, and one step technique comparable to PAP staining; however, it warrants further study in its potential application in screening of oral cancer.


Leishman Giemsa cocktail; micronuclei; potentially malignant disorders

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