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Nature. 2019 Jun 5. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1286-0. [Epub ahead of print]

Cryo-EM structure of oxysterol-bound human Smoothened coupled to a heterotrimeric Gi.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
4
Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. chengzh@pitt.edu.
5
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. xiaochun.li@utsouthwestern.edu.
6
Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. xiaochun.li@utsouthwestern.edu.

Abstract

The oncoprotein Smoothened (SMO), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the Frizzled-class (class-F), transduces the Hedgehog signal from the tumour suppressor Patched-1 (PTCH1) to the glioma-associated-oncogene (GLI) transcription factors, which activates the Hedgehog signalling pathway1,2. It has remained unknown how PTCH1 modulates SMO, how SMO is stimulated to form a complex with heterotrimeric G proteins and whether G-protein coupling contributes to the activation of GLI proteins3. Here we show that 24,25-epoxycholesterol, which we identify as an endogenous ligand of PTCH1, can stimulate Hedgehog signalling in cells and can trigger G-protein signalling via human SMO in vitro. We present a cryo-electron microscopy structure of human SMO bound to 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol and coupled to a heterotrimeric Gi protein. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site for 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol in the 7-transmembrane region, as well as a Gi-coupled activation mechanism of human SMO. Notably, the Gi protein presents a different arrangement from that of class-A GPCR-Gi complexes. Our work provides molecular insights into Hedgehog signal transduction and the activation of a class-F GPCR.

PMID:
31168089
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-019-1286-0

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