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J Craniofac Surg. 2019 Jun;30(4):e312-e315. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005306.

Maxillofacial Fractures Associated With Interpersonal Violence.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.


Interpersonal violence is a major cause of maxillofacial fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of these fractures associated in an effort to develop more effective management. The clinical records and radiographs of 272 patients with maxillofacial fractures associated with interpersonal violence collected during a 36-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were male (80.5%) and 53 (19.5%) were female. The patients ranged in age from 1 to 77 years. Two hundred and two patients (74.3%) were aged 10 to 29 years. The injury was the result of impact by a fist/hand/elbow in 224 patients (82.3%). The fracture site was the mandible in 191 patients (70.2%), the midface in 78 (28.7%), and both sites in 3 (1.1%). One hundred and eight (39.6%) of 273 mandibular fractures were in the angle, 75 (27.5%) were in the symphysis, and 90 (33.0%) were at other sites. Forty-three (53.1%) of 81 fractures in the midface were in the zygoma, 19 (23.5%) were in the maxilla, and 19 (23.5%) were at other sites. Fractures were more common on the left side. Nine patients (3.3%) also had injuries at other body sites. Ninety-five patients (34.9%) were treated by maxillomandibular fixation, 84 (30.9%) by open reduction and internal fixation, 59 (21.7%) by observation, 14 (5.1%) by intramaxillary splinting, 14 (5.1%) by transcutaneous reduction, and 6 (2.2%) by other procedures. Interpersonal violence-related maxillofacial fractures have characteristic features, especially with regard to site and laterality.

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