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Aging Dis. 2019 Jun 1;10(3):637-651. doi: 10.14336/AD.2018.0513. eCollection 2019 Jun.

The Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Mechanisms of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway in Chronic Diseases.

Tu W1,2,3, Wang H4, Li S1, Liu Q1, Sha H4.

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1Institute of Radiation Medicine, China Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.
2Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
3Center for Translational Medicine, Institutes of Stroke, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.
4Institute of Biomedical Engineering, China Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.


Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between production of free radicals and reactive metabolites or [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and their elimination by through protective mechanisms, including (antioxidants). This Such imbalance leads to damage of cells and important biomolecules and cells, with hence posing a potential adverse impact on the whole organism. At the center of the day-to-day biological response to oxidative stress is the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) - nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)- antioxidant response elements (ARE) pathway, which regulates the transcription of many several antioxidant genes that preserve cellular homeostasis and detoxification genes that process and eliminate carcinogens and toxins before they can cause damage. The redox-sensitive signaling system Keap1/Nrf2/ARE plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under stress, inflammatory, carcinogenic, and pro-apoptotic conditions, which allows us to consider it as a pharmacological target. Herein, we review and discuss the recent advancements in the regulation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system, and its role under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, e.g. such as in exercise, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, liver and kidney system, etc. and such.


Anti-inflammatory; Anti-oxidant; Keap1/Nrf2/ARE; Low-level laser irradiation; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species

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