Send to

Choose Destination
J Orthod Sci. 2019 May 23;8:10. doi: 10.4103/jos.JOS_104_18. eCollection 2019.

The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of school children in Northern Saudi Arabia.

Author information

Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.



To evaluate the incidence of malocclusion and requirement for orthodontic treatment in the Saudi region of Hail city.


520 Saudi participants between 7 and 12 years from Hail city were used in the research, all of whom were selected using a simple randomization method. For every participant, various malocclusion variables such as molar, canine, and incisor relationship, overjet, overbite, open bite, cross bite, scissor cross bite, and the score for the orthodontic treatment need [Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN)] were recorded. A light source was used for examination, in addition to mouth mirrors, a calibrated ruler, and a portable dental chair.


The prevalence of class I molar relationship was 70.4%, with class II being 21.3% and class III being 8.3%. As for the incisor relationships, class I was found at a prevalence of 72.5%, class II at 19.8%, and class III at 7.7%. Additionally, the following malocclusion characteristics were also found: deep overbite (>4 mm) (16.2%), increased overjet (>4 mm) (14.4%), posterior cross bite (13.3%), anterior open bite (7.7%), anterior cross bite (5.2%), scissor bite (4%), and posterior open bite (0.6%). A total of 4.4% were identified as requiring orthodontic treatment. Grades 1 and 2 were 25.5% and 58.5%, respectively. There was a significant relationship found between grades 3 and 4, and the anterior open bite, cross bite, and scissor bite.


This research showed that class I malocclusion was most dominant, followed by classes II and III, respectively. When the Hail city school pupils in the study were assessed for IOTN index, grades 3 and 4 were found to be highly related to anterior open bite, cross bite, and scissor bite.


Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need index; malocclusion; occlusal parameters; treatment need

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center