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J Lab Physicians. 2019 Apr-Jun;11(2):149-153. doi: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_151_18.

Subclinical inflammation markers in hyperemesis gravidarum and ketonuria: A case-control study.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Selçuk University, Selçuklu, Konya, Turkey.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Selçuklu, Konya, Turkey.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Selçuk University, Selçuklu, Konya, Turkey.



Subclinical inflammation markers play a significant role in hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG). Simple hematological markers such as mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), red cell distribution width (RDW), plateletcrit (PCT), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been shown to reflect inflammatory burden and disease activity in several disorders. Ketonuria is a parameter used in the diagnosis of severe HEG, but its correlation with disease severity remains controversial. The relationship of subclinical inflammation markers with degree of ketonuria has not been examined previously. In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of these subclinical inflammation markers and the relationship between these markers and grade of ketonuria in patients with HEG.


A total of 94 pregnant women with a diagnosis of HEG and 100 gestational age-matched healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this retrospective study. MPV, PDW, NLR, PLR, PCT, and ketonuria were calculated and analyzed from complete blood cell counts and total urine analyses.


Lymphocyte count was significantly higher in the control group (P < 0,001); NLR and PLR values were significantly higher in the HEG group (P < 0,001). Among inflammation markers, RDW increased significantly (P = 0,008) with an increase in ketonuria in patients with HEG. A statistically significant correlation was found between white blood cell (WBC) and NLR, PLR, PCT. A moderate uphill relationship was observed between NLR and WBC and a weak uphill linear relationship was observed between WBC and PLR and between WBC and PCT.


PLR and NLR can be considered effective markers to aid in the diagnosis of HEG. No marker was found to correlate with ketonuria grade except RDW, although the relationship of the severity of ketonuria with severity of disease is controversial. RDW increases as the degree of ketonuria increases.


Hyperemesis gravidarum; ketonuria; subclinical inflammation

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