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J Lab Physicians. 2019 Apr-Jun;11(2):138-143. doi: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_118_18.

Detection of VIM and NDM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase genes in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains in Bahrain.

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Disease, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.
Department of Pathology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.



Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a life-threatening infectious agent worldwide. Carbapenemase genes are reported to be some of the most common mechanisms for carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa. No reports are available from the Kingdom of Bahrain about carbapenem resistance and the underlying cause. In this study, we determined to study the presence of the metallo-beta-lactamase (MβL) genes of VIM family and NDM-1 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains.


Fifty carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from three main hospitals of Bahrain. They were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion test. Subsequently, MβL was detected by imipenem-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined disc test and conventional polymerase chain reaction.


Among 50 P. aeruginosa strains, 40 (80%) were imipenem resistant. Among the 40 imipenem-resistant strains, 35 (87.5%) strains were positive for the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test, and 21 (52%) were carrying MβL genes. Nineteen (47.5%) strains were positive for the VIM gene; one (2.5%) strain was carrying the NDM-1 gene, while one strain was carrying both the VIM and NDM-1 genes. None of the imipenem sensitive strains carried the VIM or NDM-1 gene.


This is the first study to report the presence of the VIM family gene and NDM-1 genes in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study also confirms the multiple drug resistance by the MβL strains, attention should therefore from now on, be focused on prevention of further spread of such isolates by firm infection control measures, and to reduce its threat to public health.


Carbapenem resistance; NDM-1 gene; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; VIM gene

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