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J Lab Physicians. 2019 Apr-Jun;11(2):133-137. doi: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_164_18.

Cytogenetics' impact on the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Pt. BDS PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
2
Department of Haematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of disorders characterized by a spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and associated chromosomal abnormalities. The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis is important for the evaluation of the response to therapy and the identification of an early reemergence of disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Newly diagnosed cases of AML were included in the study. Diagnosis of AML was based on morphology on bone marrow (BM) aspirates, cytochemistry, and flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Chromosomal analysis was performed on BM by short-term unstimulated cultures using standard cytogenetic technique.

RESULTS:

There were 25 males and 13 females with age group between 15 and 64 years. Cytogenetic analysis of these cases showed normal karyotype in 10 (26.3%) cases and abnormal karyotype in 28 (73.6%) cases. Cytogenetic finding in AML was divided into three groups: favorable risk, intermediate risk, and unfavorable risk. Patients in the standard risk group responded well to the chemotherapy while patients with intermediate and unfavorable karyotype had relapsed.

CONCLUSION:

We recommend that cytogenetics should be performed routinely in all cases of AML. A correlation must be done with various biochemical and hematological parameters, immunophenotyping, and BM morphology. Molecular studies must be integrated with cytogenetic studies for risk stratification at diagnosis to improve therapeutic strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Acute myeloid leukemia; cytogenetics; immunophenotyping

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