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Sci Rep. 2019 Jun 3;9(1):8210. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44477-9.

Fast eating is a strong risk factor for new-onset diabetes among the Japanese general population.

Author information

1
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
2
Steering Committee of Research on Design of the Comprehensive Health Care System for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Based on the Individual Risk Assessment by Specific Health Check, Fukushima, Japan.
3
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan. mshimabukuro-ur@umin.ac.jp.

Abstract

Although many studies that have examined the relationship of type and amount of food and the frequency of eating with new onset of diabetes, there are few reports on the relationship between how meals are eaten, such as skipping breakfast, snacking or food ingestion speed, and the onset of diabetes. We investigated the relationship between eating speed, as well as other eating habits such as snacking and skip breakfast, and new onset of diabetes in a nation-wide Japanese cohort. We obtained data from the nation-wide annual health check program in Japan. In 197,825 participants without diabetes in 2008, questionnaires recorded data on the diet habits (eating speed, snack after supper or before sleep, and skipping breakfast) and unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to measure the odds ratio of new-onset diabetes mellitus in a 3-year follow up. The proportion of fast eaters, those who snack after supper, snack before sleep, and skip breakfast was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the group who did not develop diabetes mellitus. As compared with the non-fast eater group, fast eaters were generally younger, had higher BMI, had more weight gain from 20 years onwards, and experienced frequent weight fluctuations of ≥3 kg within 1 year. The risk of fast eaters developing diabetes mellitus remained even after correction for multiple factors including age, body weight, rate of weight change, blood pressure, smoking, and alcohol consumption. No other eating habits were independent predictors for onset of diabetes mellitus. Results show that fast eating is a sole predisposing factor among eating habits for new-onset diabetes. Future studies were warranted to evaluate whether avoidance of fast eating is beneficial for prevention of diabetes mellitus.

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